Frequently Asked Questions

What are the priorities of Bend Biomedical?

                  Preventive and curative medicines

                  Medicines in short supply

                  Improvements in drug packaging

                  Deterrence of counterfeit substandard medicines

What is the difference between school-based and community-based mass drug administration (MDA)? Which are you?

School-based MDA is the administration of MDA drugs to school-aged children while at school. As long as most treatment in an MDA program is school-based, blister-packaging is less of a concern. Problems however are that only children are covered, and many countries have significant percentages of children who are not enrolled in school. Also, not all children who are enrolled regularly attend school. Community-based MDA includes all ages, and is house-to-house distribution, distribution from a health facility or other central location, or a combination of the two. We primarily do community-based MDA, and blister packaging suits this model.


Are your MDA medicines direct or indirect?

We do direct MDA and make medicines that are to be given directly to patients. In indirect MDA, the drug is added to food, such as the fortification of salt.

Can you explain more about the disease progression of lymphatic filariasis?

Lymphatic filariasis is a poverty-related disease that impairs or permanently disables millions of people every year, often resulting in life-long physical pain and social stigmatization. Helminths (parasitic worms), carried by mosquitoes, cause the disease primarily by attacking the lymphatic system. The infection usually begins in childhood, with approximately one-third of children in endemic areas infected before age five. In children the disease presents with adenitis and adenopathy. Starting after puberty, adult clinical symptoms include permanent lymphatic system, liver, and kidney damage, sometimes leading to death. In later stages, the disease causes recurrent secondary bacterial infections hastening a hardening and thickening of the skin, known as elephantiasis.

What countries are candidates to use triple therapy for lymphatic filariasis MDA?

Any country with lympatic filariasis without loa loa and onchocerciasis or other contraindications. Patients with loa loa co-infection should not be treated with ivermectin without consulting an expert on loiasis due to the risk of a fatal encephalitic reaction. Patients with onchocerciasis should not be treated with DEC because of a severe hypersensitivity reaction to released filarial antigens, damaging skin, eyes, and leading to cardiovascular collapse. Countries like Nigeria with both loa loa and onchocerciasis should use albendazole alone for lymphatic filariasis MDA.


Why are you blister-packaging?

The usual approach to mass drug administration is for tablets to be distributed from shared bottles on ordinary folded paper without labels or instructions. As a result, patients have a lack of trust and effective coverage is poor in many areas. A complete case for blister-packaging is listed at the bottom of this FAQ page.


How serious is vitamin A deficiency in children?

In addition to blindness and associated mortality, Vitamin A deficiency can also cause abnormal lung development, anemia, diarrhea, infections, night blindness, and stunting.

In addition to the usual MDA targets, what are the other good targets for MDA, and what are the challenges?

There are three other main MDA targets: azithromycin for under-five mortality, trachoma, and yaws; praziquantel for schistosomiasis, foodborne trematodiases, and taeniasis; and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) for falciparum malaria. But there are lingering questions about all three.  

--Azithromycin for trachoma and yaws is currently being donated, however no drug company is donating azithromycin for under-five mortality. Giving azithromycin to infants in sub-Saharan Africa can reduce under-five mortality by nearly 75%. There is concern though about the development of drug resistance by other bacteria that are killed by azithromycin. Also, it is about 60 cents a dose, so it is expensive compared to other MDA drugs.

--At-risk adults are frequently left out of schistosomiasis mass drug administration, because treatment and monitoring efforts with praziquantel have typically focused on children. WHO's new guidance recommends treatment of all ages when the prevalence is greater than 10%, however, the quantity of donated drug is limited and may not be sufficient to achieve this goal.

--There are now two new vaccines for malaria that are moderately effective. Donors may still need to complement these vaccines with a combination antimalarial drug like DHA-PPQ or something newer to reach elimination in some areas.


What is a World Health Organization (WHO) "prequalified medicine?"

WHO prequalification of a medicine verifies its quality, safety and efficacy. There is a five-step process that includes invitation, dossier submission, assessment, inspection, and decision. Countries are expressing a preference for WHO prequalified medicines for MDA.


What are CMOs and do you use them?

A CMO is a contract manufacturing organization. We use them when it makes sense. CMOs are the norm for pharmaceutical manufacturing. Today, 70% of pharmaceutical companies outsource their manufacturing.


Are you going to ship to the main WHO warehouses in Geneva and Manila?

Yes, but if the government or organization prefers the shipments to go straight from the CMO to warehouses in country, that might be more cost effective.


Do you have any endorsements?

Yes. Dr. Sitikantha of Kolkata, India, is on our Board of Advisors. He wrote, "Mass Drug Administration coverage remains an important indicator in elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. Drugs should preferably be distributed in blister packs to increase acceptance." More recently Coach Mike Krzyzewski, Duke University, wrote us: "I applaud you and your team for the work you are doing. It will help so many people around the world, especially in regions that do not receive this type of aid... I wish you and your team the very best."


Can't we already get these medicines for free from Big Pharma?

Many countries can still access medicine donations in bottles. However, as companies move to restrict their donations (either to areas with prevalence above a defined threshold or to low-income countries and away from middle-income countries), certain countries and organizations wish to procure their own medicines and prefer blister packaging. Bend Biomedical provides the medicines in this type of packaging while following the World Health Organization guidelines for MDA.


Why don't Pfizer, Merck, GSK, MSD, Catalent, NutriCorp, etc. donate in blister packs?

EISAI donates some, but other than that, they have been approached and are not interested. Because medicines in bottles are being supplied to governments and organizations at no cost, the makers are unwilling to change the packaging or otherwise improve products; they are also reluctant to allow products to leave their direct control to be blister-packaged elsewhere.


Who are the manufacturing partners you have lined up, and for which projects?

All of our CMOs are very large, tier-one manufacturers, and we have current mutual non-disclosure agreements in place.


What do you mean by "using appropriate dosage forms, packaging, and languages" in your products?

We believe, especially for community-based mass drug administration, that the dosage form (tablets, chewable tablets, capsules, liquids, etc.) should be familiar to, and suitable for, the recipients based on location and age. In most cases the appropriate packaging is drugs in blister packs. Labels and instructions should be included in languages that patients can read.


What specifically do you mean by age-appropriate drug formulation?

Sometimes pills are too big for children. To prevent choking, tablets are commonly crushed before administering them. In some cases though it doesn't work well, and the preferred form would be dihydrates as liquid or in soft gel caps that can be opened with scissors or nail clippers and the liquid squeezed into the child's mouth.


Why are you making "single-drug" blister packs?

Although drug combinations on blisters are convenient, sometimes they are not practical. Single-drug blister packs are what the doctors on the ground are calling for. Single-drug packs also make a lot of sense and give us an opportunity to look at different markets, e.g., ivermectin for scabies or strongyloides or in combination for trichuris. It does seem like single-drug ivermectin is being used in cocktails against many diseases.


What are asymptomatic reservoirs?

They are persons with inapparent infection but capable of transmitting the pathogen to others. Asymptomatic reservoirs are sometimes called passive or healthy "carriers." They never experience symptoms despite being infected. Thus the need for mass drug administration to treat everyone, especially when diagnostics are not feasible.


Are blister packs more environmentally friendly than pills in bottles?

Blister packs are regarded as the more environmentally-friendly option. They are child-resistant and reduce plastic use by more than 80%.


What languages will be provided on your labels and instructions?

Right now we are planning versions at least in English, Portuguese, Spanish, Hindi, French, Chinese, Russian, Swahili, and Arabic.  

Are you a 501(c)3 organization (long form)?

Yes. Our tax identification number is 85-1955977.

What are the benefits of blister packaging?

Our Case for Blister Packs

There is a compelling case for adopting blister packaging in community-based mass drug administration (MDA) programs, especially in resource-constrained areas. Blister packaging offers a range of advantages that can significantly impact medication distribution, adherence, and overall program effectiveness.


1. Minimizing Distribution Errors

Without blister packaging, errors can occur leading to adverse effects, which could be fatal.


2. Reducing Plastic Waste

Switching from bottles to blister packaging can have a profound positive impact on the environment. Such a transition could reduce plastic waste going to landfill by up to 80%. This aligns with sustainability goals and emphasizes the importance of responsible packaging choices.


3. Medication Trust and Coverage

In mass drug administration programs, trust in the provided medication is paramount. Blister packaging enhances the perception of medication trustworthiness, which is crucial in ensuring broad coverage and participation in MDA initiatives.


4. Medication Adherence

Patients adhere better to prescription regimens when receiving medications in blister packaging. This finding is particularly relevant for community-based MDA, where ensuring that individuals take all pills in the treatment is essential for disease elimination.


5. Pediatric and Elderly Safety

Blister packaging also addresses safety concerns for vulnerable populations. Child-resistant features can be incorporated into blister packs, reducing the risk of accidental ingestion by young children. Additionally, measures can be taken to prevent accidental ingestion in elderly patients.


6. Environmental and Product Stability

Blister packaging not only reduces plastic waste but also provides enhanced product stability. In tropical environments, where many MDA countries are located, blister packs protect medications from moisture, oxygen, and temperature fluctuations. This leads to longer shelf lives and ensures medication efficacy.


7. Custom Count Packaging

Blister packs offer flexibility in providing custom count packs, making them suitable for dispensing reduced quantities of medication. This feature is particularly important in MDA settings where medications may need to be distributed in differing amounts. Blister packs can be perforated and torn off easily.


8. Universal Benefits

While blister packaging is particularly relevant for MDA markets, it offers universal benefits, including convenience of dispensing, portability, and senior-friendly openings. These features make blister packaging a preferred choice for both over the counter and pharmacy-dispensed medications.


9. Addressing Economic Barriers

Most Bend Biomedical medicines are free to patients. For those that are not free and in impoverished areas, access to even affordable medications is a significant challenge. Many individuals can only afford to purchase a few pills at a time. Blister packaging accommodates this reality by providing unit-dose packaging, ensuring that patients receive the right quantity of medicine they can afford.



Blister packaging presents a compelling case for improving the effectiveness of community-based MDA programs. It addresses economic, trust, adherence, safety, and environmental considerations, making it a valuable tool in the effort to combat various diseases that disproportionately affect impoverished populations.


Bend Biomedical is committed to exploration and adoption of blister packaging solutions to enhance the impact of mass drug administration initiatives in underserved communities. Blister packaging can make a meaningful difference in the lives of those who need these essential medications.